I am tired of the sound of my own voice

Presentation at Federation of Scottish Theatre Meeting, Edinburgh,7 December 2016

I am tired of the sound of my own voice.

I am tired of having to point out that women make up 52% of the population and are therefore not a minority.

I am tired of saying what I have been saying since the days of the Labour Party’s campaign, Women in the Arts in 1980s: this is not only about jobs and equality but also about how who we are and how we see ourselves. It’s about feminism.

I am tired of being told that the fight is over when we see one woman being appointed in a key leadership role. Like everyone else I welcome Jackie Wylie’s appointment on many levels, but it is still the case that women lead only a minority of our theatres.

I am tired of hearing about the first second, third and even fourth waves of feminism. I have frequently used the aphorism, ‘feminism is like housework: you have to re-visit it every 10 years’. But it is not true. Coming as I do from a long line of Lanarkshire housewives, I know that housework is a daily task – as is feminism.

I am tired of being told that the issue is not about gender – so ‘last millennium’ – but the issue of the day is ethnic diversity, or it’s about disability or age – as if there is some kind of hierarchy of protected characteristics and black women, old women or women with disabilities can be ignored because of their gender.

I am tired of being talked to about gay rights when what is meant is male gay rights. As a lesbian I find this a tad patronising.

I am tired of being reminded that gender is not a binary concept when what this actually means is that women, not men, can be ignored again because we now rightly acknowledge that gender is more complex than previously understood.

I am tired of seeing shows which are not only written by men with a majority male cast – common in ‘classics from the canon’ – but are directed by men and the whole creative team is male (director, designer, lighting designer, composer, sound designer etc). I am so tired of this that I have resolved not to go to any more productions that do not include women in the creative team – even if the tickets are free. You know who you are.

I am tired of being told that ‘we only want the best talent for the job’. I acknowledge there is always a need for support for development programmes across the arts, but please don’t tell me that we have a problem for women in theatre. There is plenty of talent out there.

I am tired of being lectured to about the irrelevance of data when what is implied is a fear of data that might tell a critical story. In the report on creative roles in theatre Where are the Women we made it very clear that data are a starting point – not the whole story. Here’s what the data tell us:

In 2014/15, in 24 Scottish publically funded theatres covering 1,698 roles:

  • 39% of creative roles across all categories went to women.
  • 38% of theatre companies had women in artistic leadership roles.
  • 4 out of 24 theatre companies were artistically led solely by women.
  • Women were cast in 46% of the 811 roles.
  • Women made up 47% of directors of shows.
  • Women wrote 39% of the plays.
  • 29% of set and costume designers and 6% of lighting designers were women.
  • Women made up 11% of composers, musical directors and sound designers.

It tells us that in some roles – acting, directing and writing the % of women is around 40% and suggests it would not take much to push to 50:50 – and that is down to you — theatre companies themselves. It tells us that, in contrast, in set and costume design, music and sound the figures are dire and – here’s just one suggestion- perhaps we need a programme of development with colleges and universities or a series of funded apprenticeships.

What is does not tells us is if 2014/15 was an unusual year – we only get that through a regular gathering of data.

Nor does it tell us who got the bigger acting roles – men or women; if the assistant directors included in the director category were truly there to assist in the directing or just make the tea. This research does not tell us how big the commissions were for women – although I can tell from other research that the longer the show and ergo the bigger the commission, the more likely it is to go to a man.

I am tired of asserting that data are an important starting point. Don’t take my word for it:

‘If our aim is to reflect the country we live in, we do need numbers in order to measure our progress against that. But it has to be an absolutely robust and authentic part of everything we do.’ Rufus Norris

The report also does not tell us which theatre companies achieved or were close to achieving gender balance. But I will tell you now that the Traverse, Dundee Rep, A Play, A Pie and A Pint and of course Stellar Quines were amongst some of the top performers in achieving gender balance- all run solely or jointly by a woman that year.

I am tired of the suggestion that programming a diversity of work across a season somehow removes the creativity required to run a theatre company and reduces it to tick box. I have talked to artistic directors who have been clear how a process of looking at balance across the season opens up possibilities. But here is Rufus Norris again on the record.

‘We are changing the way we programme at the NT so that diversity is actively considered at the start of the creative process. And in that case it can be helpful to look at, say, the number of female writers – it gives you the lay of the land, the shape of a season, in quite a stark way. But this isn’t about trying to make everyone aspire to a certain kind of work or checkboxes; it is about enabling those from all different disciplines, backgrounds and experiences to tell the stories they want to tell.’

I tired of pointing out how research into women in theatre was done voluntarily by those working in theatre who were keen to help. Imagine a young playwright in front of the fire wearing her Christmas pyjamas counting (and checking) figures from 6 plays produced by one of our funded theatre – that’s what this project was about and if she can do it- so can you. How hard is it?

Time to move from warm words to action; time to move from being told what to do and to take up a leadership role.

Collect data, analyze, contextualize, publish and work on making it all better.

Because I am tired of sitting in meetings where I am told that you won’t cooperate with data gathering when I know that is not true. What you resent is gathering data and other impact information, doing fine reports only to have this work at best ignored and at worst not even read.

You are also tired, as I am, filling in pointless feedback forms or surveys which tell us nothing or worse still are used to concoct an overblown claim for the arts which fits just nicely into this post-truth world.

I am so tired of going through these arguments in my head and asking again and again is what I am suggesting so outlandish?

I am tired of being nice when I want to be the young woman in Julia Taudivin’s Blow Off, stuff my bra full of dynamite, strut up, say, Princes Street and blow myself up from the top floor of a glass fronted building in the middle of the night. Not an act of terrorism but a howl of anguish and despair at patriarchy and our acceptance of the unacceptable.

I am tired of being told I am obsessive, or eccentric when what I am is fucking angry.

I am tired of the sound of my own voice.

A Missed Opportunity

On 30 September Creative Scotland announced it was undertaking a survey on Understanding Diversity on the Arts in order ‘to build a clearer picture about who is working in the arts today across a range of roles, and what the perceived barriers are to entering, progressing and developing in the arts professionally.’

The survey itself is comprehensive, logical and clearly worded. However there is a fatal flaw in the methodology. It is being distributed via Creative Scotland’s own newsletter, on its website and through a range of organisations and contacts. It is therefore open to anyone to respond.

There are two problems with this. First it is open to manipulation. Anyone can complete with bogus details and completely distort the findings.

Second, there is no attempt to establish a sample which could be seen as representative of the arts in Scotland. We may find that, for example, the majority of responses come from one group or another (for example men or women or people with disabilities; theatre makers or visual artists).   The results will represent only the views of people who responded. It is difficult to see how any conclusions can be drawn and policies and strategies developed on the back of the findings.

Moreover, if repeated in, for example, two years, no conclusions will be able to be drawn on any changes which have taken place.

Why does this matter?

The main concern is that many people who are committed to gender balance, support for artists with disabilities or development of black and minority ethnic artists who see this as a really significant step will be hugely disappointed. This survey will tell us what we already know: there are many artists who believe they have encountered or have evidence of discrimination. But nothing more.

It also lets Creative Scotland off the hook. It has one significant power – to distribute money across the arts. This survey will not tell us if their funding is supporting or tackling barriers.

And finally it brings research in the arts into disrepute. There are too many examples of ill-thought through methodology in arts research leading to claims being made about how they are managed and the impact they have, that just don’t stand up.

When I heard about plans for this survey from Creative Scotland, I raised these concerns. Sadly they were not heeded.

PS for avoidance of doubt I have not completed the survey.

Women’s Cultural Heritage Day 19 September

Midi-Minuit du Matrimoine – Women’s Cultural Heritage Marathon

A major event to celebrate the first ever International Women’s Cultural Heritage Day – La journée internationale du matrimoine – is being held
on 19 September 2015 in the Place du Palais-Royal in Paris, from Noon to Midnight, to raise the profile of creative women in the past and their work.

If you would like to contribute to showcasing a female author, composer, singer, choreographer, filmmaker, etc. who is no longer living (through a slam, reading, performance, dance, music, poetry, architecture, drama, visual arts, philosophy), send us your proposal.

Together let’s turn the spotlight on the hidden [female] face of our cultural heritage!

For proposals and all information about the event, contact:

midiminuitdumatrimoine@gmail.com

This event is supported by

Mouvement HF for gender equality in the arts and culture, Osez le Féminisme!, Genre et Ville, la CLEF (Coordination française pour le Lobby Européen des Femmes), le LEF (Lobby Européen des Femmes), Le Deuxième Regard, le collectif Georgette Sand, Prenons La Une, les Voix Rebelles, le comité Métallos, La Barbe, le Réseau Féministe Ruptures, la Maison des Femmes de Montreuil, Clasicas Y MODERNAS (Espagne), Projecte Vaca (Espagne), Mujeres en las artes visuales (Espagne) & 50/50 le magazine de l’égalité femmes/hommes, etc.
On Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/midiminuitdumatrimoine?fref=ts

#MidiMinuitduMatrimoine

Women in Theatre Scotland – Where next?

Thanks to all who came along to the Traverse on 26th September to discuss this issue.  As said at the time, the response to the event was overwhelming.  I also want to thank those who could not make it along but who before and after the event made a special effort to talk to me about this is question and express their support for any action.  You are part of this too. Attached are the contributions from the three speakers and notes on the discussion which followed.

The key question now is where next?  A few of us kicked this off, but this does not imply that we have all the answers – nor that this is a centrally run campaign.  Our intention was to raise the issue and see where it took us.  Nevertheless, if there is to be change, it is helpful if there is some kind of coordination and the circulation of this report on proceedings is a contribution towards that.  I am happy to continue to circulate information and provide a space for people to share ideas.

It was sheer serendipity which saw this event followed up by a week of theatre at the Tron under the title ‘Reclaim the F Word’ and many congratulations to Julia Taudevin for putting together a great platform and presenting such an interesting range of work.

Meanwhile there is a Facebook page established by writers – Feminist Scottish Theatres Network –and Nicola McCartney, Chair of the Scottish Society of Playwrights has posted:

The women playwrights have been meeting together for a while to chat about this issue. We have come up with an idea that we try to organise some sort of theatre industry forum event in early December this year to facilitate a discussion on the way forward. Possibly followed by a direct action day around International Women’s day in March. What do you think?

There were several issues that I am happy to coordinate and to take the lead. The issue of data is central to making the case and I will be working with others in lobbying both Creative Scotland and the Scottish Government.  I am also interested in building alliances across artforms- this is not an issue which is just relevant to theatre.  All support on these welcome!

Finally thanks to Equity, Federation of Scottish Theatre, Playwrights’ Studio Scotland,  Scottish Society of Playwrights for supporting the event; to the Traverse for giving the space and to their staff for being so helpful; and to Jon Morgan for taking notes.

Thanks are also due to Max Beckmann from Equity and Blandine Pélissier from H/F Network, France, to Anne Withers Tradeecosse who was on hand to help with translation for Blandine and to Sheena McDonald for her expert chairing.

Christine Hamilton

 

Women in Theatre Scotland- Where Next? Speakers’ contributions and notes from the discussion

Max Beckmann,  Equality Organiser, Equity

Women in Theatre:  Traverse Theatre 

Thank you for inviting me to speak to you tonight.   I’ve been asked to talk to you about three areas:

  • What Equity does to promote the employment of women in theatre
  • What we are currently focusing on in this work
  • And about how the Public Sector Equality Duty applies to theatre

Before I start, for those of you who don’t know who we are and what we do, Equity is the UK trade union representing 37,000 performers working throughout film, television, theatre, the music industry and the live arts.  Our membership includes actors, dancers, singers, television and radio presenters, models, variety acts, theatre directors, stunt performers and other creative professionals.

Equity’s membership is evenly split between the sexes overall and the leadership of the union includes a female General Secretary, Christine Payne, and two female Vice Presidents, Jean Rogers and Natasha Gerson.  Our work on women’s Equality is also led by our Women’s Committee which is made up of of nine female Equity members who are elected to represent the interests of our female membership.

So, what has Equity done to promote the employment of its female members over recent years?

For a good number of years we concentrated on research to inform our awareness raising and campaigning work.  Our research has involved working with academics and undertaking it ourselves.

And I want to give you a brief overview of these two areas of research:

In the early 1990s Equity’s Women’s Committee worked closely with the academic Dr. Helen Thomas who produced two research reports on the subject of gender, one looking at the position of women in the recorded media and the other the position of women and pay, both in recorded media and the theatre.  Helen found that women:

  • worked less than men across cinema, television, radio commercials and theatre;
  • played fewer different types of roles than men,
  • had shorter careers than men.
  • earned less than men and significantly less than men in TV;

More recently, members of Equity’s Women’s Committee raised the subject of women’s disadvantage at meetings of FIA (the International Federation of Actors) and this resulted in a pan-European Steering Group being set up to look into the subject of women’s equality. Funding was secured from the European Commission to undertake a piece Europe-wide research on the employment situation of women performers, with a specific reference to both aging and to portrayal.  The research was carried out by Dr. Debroah Dean from Warwick University and her key findings were these, in summary:

  • Female performers have shorter careers than men;
  • 26% of men see ageing as an advantage in relation to pay, compared to just 3% of women;
  • 49% of women perceive ageing to be a disadvantage, compared to just 9% of men
  • A greater proportion of women fall into the lowest income groups of performers (38% earning less than £6k compared to 24% of men); and
  • Women represent a small proportion of high earning performers (0.1% earning over £60K compared to 4% of men);

So moving on to look at our own research, in 2011 Equity’s Women’s Committee undertook an audit of roles for women in a selection of subsidised theatres in England based on published cast lists. Of the 36 theatres surveyed only one, the Manchester Royal Exchange, appeared to have employed more female than male performers.  A further five, the Royal Court, Soho Theatre, Bristol Old Vic, Keswick Theatre by the Lake and Northampton Theatre Royal, had cast slightly more men than women.  In the remaining 30 theatres roles for men significantly outweighed those for women.

Because this research had been compiled from published sources only and we couldn’t be certain of its accuracy, we then wrote to all 36 theatres asking them to check the figures and to discuss with Equity the lack of roles for women.  Only eight theatres responded.

We did manage to extract statistics on women’s performer employment from the National Theatre.   Nicholas Hynter explained in his correspondence to us that “Whilst we support the Equity Women’s Committee campaign and endeavour to increase the number of female actors appearing on our stages each year, our casting is inevitably dictated by canon.  But although we can never achieve a gender balance in some areas of the repertoire – Shakespeare being a good example – we do strive to feature work which is more representative.” And he offered up the following figures:

In 2008-2009 the National employed 93 female actors and 185 male actors. For 2009-2010 these figures were 76 female to 152 male actors and for 2010-2011 they were 127 female to 200 male actors.

And last year we undertook some elementary research into the professional acting opportunities for men and women in two producing theatres in Scotland over the last twenty years.  What we have found is that for every five opportunities for men, there are only three opportunities for women.  This is slightly better than the 2:1 ratio in England but what’s alarming from the data we’ve collected is that the situation appears to have been getting worse for women in the two Scottish theatres we looked.  Looking at five sets of data over the twenty year period, 62% of roles went to men and 38% to women.  But if we look at the situation in 2012, 70% of roles went to men and 30% to women in these two theatres.

So, a clear and consistent picture of the disadvantage experienced by women performers has emerged from both the academic research and our own research.  So what then have we done about it?

Well we’ve made sure that over the last few years the subject of women’s employment is rarely out of the press.  Whenever we undertake research we put it in the public domain and generate as much press attention and publicity as possible around it.  Jean and members of our Women’s Committee and leading Equity women including, for example, Harriet Walter, Ann Mitchell and Maggie Steed have all probably lost count of how many interviews they’ve given to the press over the last few years about the lack of work available for women performers and particularly older women performers. And we do feel this is having an impact.  It helps keep the pressure on theatres to deliver change.

We concentrate on making sure that employers and the theatre establishment can’t possibly claim to be ignorant of the fact that the industry is characterized by significant discrimination against women in access to work and we challenge them to do something about it. We make sure that we regularly raise the subject of women’s employment with employers and we ask them questions about their record on gender.  We also draw their attention to the findings of, and the recommendations arising, from the research, such as the Good Practice Handbook put together by FIA.

We keep the subject of women’s equality very much on the agenda by organising meetings of women performers, speaking at conferences and panel debates.

A couple of years ago we organized a petition which called for the equal representation of women in Film and Television drama and we managed to get over 10,000 people to sign it. It was primarily an online petition but Equity members also stood outside of theatres gathering hundreds of signatures from members of the audience and we’ve used this support in our negotiations with employers and in our representations with the politicians.

We have also built solidarity with other trade unions, particularly our sister entertainment unions and we form links with and support the work of organisations such as Sphinx Theatre Company, Women in Film and Television, and organisations that campaign on the subject of women’s portrayal such as the Fawcett Society and UK Feminista.

And when groups of our female members feel particularly aggrieved by the inaction of individual theatres on women’s equality, our members are not afraid to take a more direct action type approach to campaigning, as happened last year in North West London in respect of Hampstead Theatre’s record on roles for women. Hampstead had staged a number of plays which delivered 80% or more roles for men and it then concluded its season with the all-male company Propeller performing Henry V and The Winter’s Tale.  Women performers living near the theatre felt they were being denied the opportunity to work at their local theatre and they made sure that both the local and national press knew about this situation and asked questions of Hampstead about its choice of programming and how it was spending public money.  As a result Hampstead was forced to issue a statement and publish its own statistics on women’s employment on its website.

So moving on to the current focus of our work, it’s very much on the Public Sector Equality Duty and the area of legal compliance.

So what is the Public Sector Equality Duty?  It’s a legal duty set out in the Equality Act 2010, the Equality Act being the law that protects people with, what are called protected characteristics, such as race, sex or disability, from discrimination.  The Equality Duty which is set out in the Equality Act applies to all public authorities and this includes Arts Council England and Creative Scotland.

Amongst other things the Equality Duty sets out that in exercising their functions public authorities must have what’s called ‘due regard’ to the need to:

  • Eliminate discrimination; and
  • Advance equality of opportunity between people who share a relevant protected characteristic and those who do not; such as between men and women

What this means is that both Arts Council England and Creative Scotland must consciously consider how they can eliminate discrimination and advance equality of opportunity between men and women in their decision-making processes, and that includes when they are making decisions about funding processes.  They need to be taking steps to remove or minimize the disadvantage experienced by women in theatre in order to comply with the duty.

The existence of the Equality duty provides us with a legal mechanism to hold Arts Council England and Creative Scotland to account if necessary, in a way that we are unable to do with individual theatres themselves.

We have been using the Equality Duty in our meetings and correspondence with Arts Council England on the subject of gender equality and we have clarified the basis on which we think Arts Council England should be meeting its equality duty in respect of women’s performer employment.

We have made it clear to Arts Council England that we think it’s not enough for it to rely on a policy that seeks to achieve

  • greater diversity of arts engagement;
  • an increase in the numbers of women who sit on boards or in other senior leadership positions in arts organisations; or
  • an increase in the numbers of female staff employed by theatres;

Initiatives to deliver all of these things are obviously incredibly important but we say that Arts Council England also needs to be taking tangible action to address the under-representation of women on our stages.

Arts Council England already considers the potential contribution made by arts organisations to race and disability equality as part of its funding process, so why doesn’t it do this with reference to gender?  Why is no consideration given to advancing gender equality on stage?

Arts Council England already collects large amounts of data from funded organisations about the protected characteristics of the people who run arts organisations or who are employed by them, so why doesn’t it require these organsiations to provide data on those who are actually employed on stage?

We have been calling on the Arts Council England to do this, to monitor on- stage employment by gender and by actor weeks.  Surely organisations in receipt of large sums of public money should be required at the very least to know how many jobs are being created on their stages for both men and for women as a result of the decisions and choices they are making.  Monitoring would expose the imbalance of roles for women and men and focus minds on addressing it.

Our dialogue with Arts Council England on the Equality Duty is continuing and it’s our intention to have a similar conversation with Creative Scotland about its compliance with the Equality Duty. We want to engage in dialogue with Creative Scotland about how it’s using the Equality Duty to address the under-representation of women on Scottish stages.  Here in Scotland public authorities are also under a specific legal duty to equality impact assess their policies and practices.  How is Creative Scotland doing this when it comes to performer employment?

We fully accept that advancing gender equality in the theatre is very different to advancing it in other occupations.  The artistic nature of what theatre does makes it particularly complex but it’s not impossible.

Our message to all those who are engaged in the making of theatre is this, if you are serious about advancing gender equality make a public commitment to it and formulate an action plan on how you will deliver it.  Make yourselves aware of the findings of the research and the recommendations that have come out of it.

  • Get more women onto your boards and into positions of artistic leadership. As Elizabeth Freestone’s research has shown, this does make a difference.
  • Review how your artistic policy impacts on women performers;
  • Invest in new writing and commission more women writers;
  • Employ more female directors;
  • Look at how the Tricycle’s season of plays “Women, Power and Politics” delivered so many roles for women and consider how your programming does this or could do this;
  • Think of innovative ways your theatre can help address the underemployment of women on stage.  This might involve asking Phyllida Lloyd to direct an all-female Julius Caesar, as the Donmar Warehouse as did, or reviving three major female roles from Jacobean drama, as Eric Whyman has chosen to do at the RSC.
  • Make gender the determining factor in some decisions you take;
  • Support Equity’s My Theatre Matters campaign and our fight against the Arts Cuts.  Theatre is the bedrock that supports many female performers throughout their careers, particularly theatre that invests in new writing by female writers.  We need to fight the funding cuts that will hit women performers hard as companies will look to revive old plays and content rather than invest and take risks with new material.
  • And to wind-up, whilst we clearly need to celebrate the fact that more women are breaking through to run our theatres we still need to look at whether or not theatre is a female friendly environment.  We need some in-depth analysis which looks at issues such as recruitment and career development, the working hours that are expected, workplace culture and issues relating to pregnancy, maternity and childcare.  This type of analysis might help us better understand how to really tackle the whole area of women’s equality in theatre going forward.

Max Beckmann

Blandine Pélissier, founding member of the H/F association for gender equality in culture in France 

In France, it all started in 2005 when the then Minister of culture got concerned by the fact that he seemed to be surrounded by men only in meetings regarding arts. He commissioned Reine Prat, a high civil servant, to do a qualitative and quantitative research on gender equality in the performing arts. The first report was issued in July 2006 and made the headlines of journal Le Monde. It felt like a bomb going off in the art world where it is hugely taken for granted that it is avant-garde and progressive, as it clearly showed a massive gender imbalance regarding top positions as well as programming or production means.

Some key figures from this report :

18% of the top managers in cultural administration were women (less than in the Army)
4% of directors of Opera houses were women
9% of directors managing CDN (National Theatre Centers) were women
0% of directors leading the five National Theatres were women
30% of directors leading CCN (National Choreographic Centers) were women

This under-representation has a direct impact on employment, especially for female writers, stage directors and conductors.

15% of shows performed on stage are written by women
25% of shows are directed by women
5% of concerts are conducted by women
13% of technicians are women

Despite Reine Prat’s report, nothing was done on a political level, except quickly appointing 2 women at the head of Comédie Française and another of the 5 National Theatre..A second report confirming the findings of the first one was issued in 2009. But Nicolas Sarkozy had been elected in the meantime and gender equality in the arts was the least of his concerns. The report was put in a drawer and not even published.

Meanwhile, a group of people from the performing arts, mostly women but not only, got together in Lyon in 2008 : they aimed to raise awareness of these reports so the relevant authorities could not ignore them. They started off by organizing events just like this one. Women who attended realized that their relative lack of success, compared to their male peers, could not just be attributed to their lack of talent but that there was something else going on. It was a comfort… or not, depending how you look at it! They were clearly not being given the same chances. This explains why, even with a majority of female students in art classes, we see them “evaporate” as soon as they come out of school. Besides, we find the same glass ceiling effect that is vastly documented in the corporate world.

From then on, the HF movement spread region by region. It is now established in 14 of 22 of  the regions in Metropolitan France. It is currently structured as an inter-regional Federation and it has a strong lobbying impact. It has been working hand in hand with the Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of the Women’s Rights that president François Hollande re-established after years of non-existence.

Until recently, the public bodies responsible for appointing theatre directors insisted that there were not enough women to choose from. By refusing to question the reasons for such limited female options, they actually played a part in perpetuating this state of affairs.

In May 2012, new President François Hollande formed a government with as many women than men and repeatedly stated his commitment to achieving equality within the lifetime of his presidency. We, at H/F, believe that rules regarding equality in politics must also apply to the arts. Hence our insistence that measures should be taken as soon as possible in order to encourage the appointment of women to top positions in the arts.

A few of our actions :

–       We have been organizing debates in our own regions but also during  the Avignon festival, the major theatre festival in France

–       We participate in a number of forums, symposiums etc. whenever we are invited

–       We lobby and are in touch with other feminists associations (amongst them the feminist activist group La Barbe who initiated actions for example during Festival de Cannes 2012 and at the presentation of season of Théâtre de l’Odeon in 2012 (0% of female playwrights and directors): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lxF1BE3Jls )

–       We sit down at the table with professional bodies like the SACD (Authors Society), CNT (Centre National du Théâtre), unions, ministries and local authorities, asking for data and studies. For example we have been working with the SACD since the beginning and for the second year, we co-produce this brochure called “Où sont les femmes?” (Where are the Women?) to highlight the percentage of women playwrights, directors, choreographers and so on in the main subsidized institutions (http://www.sacd.fr/Nouvelle-edition-de-la-brochure-Ou-sont-les-femmes.3533.0.html ).

–       We gather our own data and studies to establish a resource center

–       We use communication tools (like videos or sound objects, fb pages, twitter and a tumblr – http://culturedelegalite.tumblr.com/ )

–       We develop partnerships with universities holding a gender studies department

–       We encourage theatres to join the Saisons Egalité. HF gets things moving on a local scale by inviting theatres to commit  to a policy of gender equality  both in terms of programming and of producing, and in their governance (with equal pay for ex and a greater gender mix within the teams). Those theatres also commit to “spreading the word” in their season‘s brochure.

We also wrote down a Manifesto calling upon public bodies to promote equality in the following ways:

– re-instigating the collection of statistics regarding gender inequalities

– promoting female/male equality in all official communications and policies

– enforcing existing laws on professional equality

– promoting the use of anonymity of applications whenever it is possible. For ex, it’s the use of screened-off auditions for recruiting orchestra musicians which has helped women join orchestras

– making symbolic gestures like the admission of women in the Pantheon. The Pantheon is the monument where Great Men who served France in different ways are buried; it currently houses only two women, Marie Curie and another woman who is only there because she was such a good wife she must be buried next to her husband!

In short, we demand the implementation of a voluntary policy in order to drastically reduce the gender imbalance in every field, as recommended by the European Parliament resolution of 10 March 2009 on equality of treatment and access for men and women in the performing arts.

We have had a few successes so far.

A “gender equality research institute” was set up within the Ministry of Culture to collect data  (for ex, we are expecting a study on the movie and tv business in November).

A high civil servant has been appointed specifically to be in charge of gender matters at the Ministry of Culture.

Short lists for top positions as head of theatres or operas or choreographic centers are now shorter, and composed of 2 males and 2 females.

A law on women’s rights is currently being discussed in which there was originally nothing regarding the arts. With the help of the Senate delegation for women’s rights, we had the Senate vote an amendment to include artistic and intellectual production in the law.  It was of great symbolic importance to us that the word “Culture” be spelt out in this law.

To conclude, I would like to say that the distribution of public money must embrace all audiences. Artistic projects should be many and broad. A biased cultural output can only produce a narrow-minded and unbalanced society.

Blandine Pélissier

Christine Hamilton, Consultant

What’s the problem?

In May I was invited to speak at a conference in Lyon organised by Blandine Pellisier and her colleagues in the H/F network. For this, I went back through my personal archive and found material/research prepared over the past four decades- mainly, but not exclusively, in theatre and performing arts:

  • In the 1980s— I was involved in campaigns on women in the arts.  This work originated from the Labour Party and the publication in 1987 Missing Culture.  I was working with the trades unions in Scotland at the time and organised a campaign and a conference on this in 1989. Our concern then was that the exclusion of women was not simply an issue of jobs but also affected the very roots of our culture.
  • In the 1990s I was working at the Scottish Arts Council.  We introduced a policy that all organisations that received public funding, monitored their activity and produced figures on equal opportunities.  In 1996 we analysed these figures in a major review which highlighted continuing inequalities facing women in positions of influence and power across the arts. This led to the development of policies in that area.
  • In the first decade of the new millennium, I undertook a review of training in theatre directing in Scotland where I observed that it appeared that you had to be a man to run a theatre in Scotland. Part of the recommendations on training was to create a greater diversity in leadership.
  • More recently, I led the theatre review for Creative Scotland, We uncovered the absence of monitoring of equal opportunities policies within the theatres which received public funding.   Nearly 50% of those surveyed did not bother to monitor. Creative Scotland itself took no steps to gather data nor monitor the application of these policies.  This means that there are no current data available on the number of plays by women which are produced, nor on job opportunities for women directors and designers in theatre in Scotland.  This takes us back before 1990s.

So the title for my talk in Lyon was, not surprisingly, ‘Feminism is like housework you have to re-visit it every ten years’[1].   And I am pleased to say there is a similar phrase in French. Which appeared in the publication Causette in 2010:  «Le féminisme, c’est comme le ménage, si on ne s’y colle pas régulièrement, on finit par s’habituer à la crasse. »  ‘Feminism is like housework: if you don’t get down to it regularly, you end up getting used to the dirt.’

For today’s event, I could be reading a paper I prepared at the end of the 1980s and apart from updating the statistics slightly and making some of the references more contemporary, nothing has changed. The conclusions are just the same.

However I had a look behind the data to see if there were any shifts in what is happening, any victories won, and clues about how we might continue to tackle this issue.

To find the most detailed recent research in Scotland we need to turn to work done by Stellar Quines, which commissioned research comparing the position of directors, writers, actors, designers and composers in theatre when they were founded in 1993 with the situation in 2009.

Key findings are:

  • The gender balance in a typical theatre season was more female in 2009 than 1993 but in no one category were women represented at a level of 50% or more.  Indeed in only one category (actors) was women’s representation above one third.
  • In general comparable data from UK, European and international sources showed an increase in women represented in theatre across a range of artistic roles.  However the trend in Scotland was slow in comparison and there was evidence that women got more opportunities in the less well funded companies.
  • Governance—the boards of theatres are mainly male.
  • Non- white and women with disabilities struggle with the complexity of their identity and appear to suffer from multiple discrimination. (And I might add —  the identity issue is further complicated in Scotland by a debate around the desirability –or otherwise—of having Scots leading key cultural institutions- however we define that.)

There are other arguments which echo down the decades:

  • The position of women in the arts reflects what is happening elsewhere—for example still in the academic world and in business there are too few women leaders.   I want to return to this broader question later.
  • There is the problem of ‘the canon’– a particular issue in England.  Shakespeare dominates theatre in England. An interesting fact – he created 981 characters of which 826 are male and only 155 female. I love the US initiative ‘On her Shoulders’ which aims to ‘re-load the canon’–  and address this issue of lack of historical examples of women playwrights ‘by familiarizing potential producers and audiences with a neglected legacy of plays– not by women playwrights– but by great playwrights’.
  • In Scotland we have a different issue.  Interestingly there is much less in the way of the established ‘canon’ of work and indeed in an analysis of repertoire over the decades we showed in the review of theatre that new work – and new work created or written in Scotland, is central to theatrical output.  So if women playwrights are not getting their work produced then it is because they are being offered fewer opportunities. But, as I said already, there is a lack of data.
  • There is also the ‘female phenomenon’ –where women are in positions of power, they stand out and everyone thinks the problem is solved.  For example in Scotland we might point to Vicky Featherstone’s tenure as Artistic Director of the National Theatre of Scotland. In response to the information which has gone out on this event, I was contacted by Andy Arnold artistic director of the Tron Theatre who wrote in an email to me which he invited me to share:

‘Of the seven main building based Scottish theatres, four are run by women ­ Rachel (O’Riordan) at Perth Theatre , Orla (O’Loughlin) and Linda (Crooks) at the Traverse Theatre, Jackie (Wylie) at The Arches , and Jemima (Levick) (with Phillip Howard) at Dundee Rep.[2] That just leaves CitzLyceum and The Tron run by men (I currently have Julia Taudevin as Artistic Associate).  The National Theatre of Scotland has been run for the past several years by Vicky (Featherstone), and various leading touring companies are run or co-run by women ­ Vox MotusGrid Iron , Company ChordeliaCora Bisset’s company, Cat Evans’s A Moment’s PeacePoor Boy and more….’

This is both true and great progress. Lack of data means we cannot tell if this is a trend which is sustainable or a blip but Andy does have a good point.  One of the questions it raises with me is ‘Is theatre trail blazing on this issue? (one might say theatre and dance) if so why?

It certainly is not the case that major shifts are happening in music. We only have to point to Marin Alsop’s reaction to being selected to be the first woman to conduct the last night of the Proms.  She expressed

‘shock that there can still be firsts for women in 2013.’

Furthermore, Vicky Featherstone as you know has left to take over the Royal Court in London and has been replaced by a man.  This means not one of Scotland’s national cultural institutions is artistically led by a women- including orchestra, opera, ballet, theatre, the national museums and galleries, the national library of Scotland and the Edinburgh International Festival.

What Has To Be Done?

  • We need the data: Creative Scotland in their Equalities Impact Statement has indicated that they are collecting data from this current year. This means that it will be several years before we see any kind of pattern.  We need to get them to act now to go back and do some retrospective data gathering.  We also need to challenge their Equalities Impact Statement which they have a statutory obligation to produce.  It is not good on gender and has all the hallmarks of a box ticking exercise.
  • We need action: Julia Taudevin is curating an exciting week next week at the Tron theatre under the title Reclaim the F Word which features work of women of all ages and stages in their performance and writing career.  Let’s have more of that and where the door is open or at least ajar, let’s get in there.  A Play, A Pie and A Pint, The Arches, here at the Traverse and so on.
  • We need to re-frame the question: The female condition is not the same as the issues facing, for example, non-white artists and audiences in Scotland.   Nor is it the same challenge as working with artists with disabilities or even gay artists.  Robert Softley If these spasms could speak which is touring at the moment, is a brilliant piece of political theatre which has come from the experience of a young gay disabled man- and activist.  And it speaks to a wide audience and should be recognised as such. But it does not ‘represent’ every aspect of discrimination. So while the data gathering might all be wrapped up together for convenience sake, let’s ditch the term diversity and re-cover feminism.  We are not a minority to be catered for, we are the majority who wants to claim its place.
  • We need to critique: I understand the reluctance of many in the arts community to be critical of those who might give them work—but we need ways of feeding back concern on this issue.   It is a really fine balance to be struck between artistic freedom and narrow programming. A play like Black Watch with an all male cast is as important as The Guid Sisters with an all female one. And I am not suggesting we deny one over the other. However I am unashamed about speaking to the Artistic Director at the Citizens’ about his autumn’s season of all male work- and the same could be said about the autumn season at the Lyceum. So much of this is about awareness and we need to keep raising the issue.
  • We need to be inspired by good examples: Creative Scotland has an organisational change programme on equalities happening in six organisations across Scotland- it will be interesting to see what comes from this but embedding equality in an organisation should feminise it not just diversify it.
  • We need to be clear about why this matters: It may seem very far away literally and metaphorically, but the rape and murder of women in India, the shooting of girls in Pakistan because they want to go to school, the restriction of women’s rights in Saudi, the grooming of young girls in Rochdale, Oxford and Northern Ireland, the disproportionate effect of the UK government’s welfare reforms on women, the tension for young women between being obedient daughters and fulfilled adults in Muslim households- which so parallel the experience of many Catholic women of my generation—all these are in our world today.   Of course no one is suggesting that a problem with roles for actors or commissions for playwrights is as dangerous as a girl going to school in parts of Pakistan, but surely it is the artist’s role to witness and reflect, examine and explain. That reflection needs to be a female one as well as a male one.
  • We need to organize: This is not a situation unique in Scotland and while the starting point today is theatre, we know this extends to other areas of the arts and we need to work across the whole spectrum. My email address is on business cards- send me yours, and let’s get moving.

Christine Hamilton

Notes of discussion session at Women in Theatre event on 26 September 2013 at the Traverse Theatre

Please note – these notes represent a reasonably ‘verbatim’ transcript of the main points made by each speaker (separated by ***).  I have not attempted to summarise or draw together common themes. The speakers are unnamed, except for where one of the 3 panel speakers (Maxine, Blandine and Christine) responded to a question or made a point further to their original presentation.

***

Theatre is old fashioned in its format and hierarchical (male) structure.  We need not to copy male structures.  The Magdalene Project in Wales presents such an alternative model.

There is a distinction between ‘women in theatre’ and women’s theatre’.

***

People hide behind Shakespeare.  Male parts can be played by women – gender blind casting. Can be done creatively.

***

Why is gender blind casting so often in favour of men?  E.g. Macbeth production with 3 male witches or all-male Midsummer Night’s Dream.

There is evidence that women did perform in productions in Shakespeare’s time – e.g. Ane Satyre of the Thrie Estates.

Shakespeare should not be an excuse for not casting more women.

***

Women’s writing is often defined as ‘about women’ whereas men’s writing is considered ‘universal’.  Theatre can challenge mainstream culture and redefine what might be determined interesting and universal, beyond the predominant white, male narrative.

***

There is a growing trend in Scottish theatre (borrowing from European/German/Polish culture) of questioning realism e.g. Lyric Hammersmith ‘Secret Theatre’ season, where for instance they have cast young British black women in classic theatre roles.

***

Many male writers in Scotland have created great roles for women.  But women writers struggle to get plays produced.

There have been some good examples of positive discrimination e.g. Traverse Theatre’s women’s writers group which supported the early careers of writers such as Zinnie Harris and Nicola McCartney.

There a more women writers than before in Scotland, but the work is not getting staged as frequently.  But this may be part of a larger problem of fewer plays getting staged as other forms of creating theatre are becoming more popular.

***

There are often more opportunities for women with smaller theatre companies, including women’s theatre companies.  However, it is very hard to sustain a career based on the usually low wages these companies can offer.

No wonder we can’t break the glass ceiling when we can’t even afford a ladder.

***

Maxine:

Low wages are an issue.  Equity is pushing for National Minimum Wage to be adopted by all companies.

Changes to welfare (Universal Credit) are likely to affect female actors in particular.

Also as freelancers, actors only ever get Statutory Maternity Pay [£136.78 per week].

***

It is an issue that pay in theatre in general is low, but with women having fewer opportunities overall, it is particularly so for women practitioners.

***

Do successful women do enough to support and promote other women?

***

In Scotland, leading women in theatre do support other women practitioners.

Another barrier for women who work freelance in theatre is that they cannot afford childcare costs.

***

Christine:

There is a great age-range of people present tonight.  The event seems to have struck a chord and could be the start of a network.

***

Blandine:

Networking is very important.  Men do it all the time and women don’t always do this so readily.

***

We seem to be more accepting of the status quo and to have lost the pain and the anger of the feminist movement exemplified by theatre companies such as Sphinx.  We need to retain feminism.

***

The way we make theatre is as important as the ‘product’.  Community, support and dialogue are female values which are more important than product which is a male / capitalist concept.

***

It is about business and production models.  We have made the economic and moral case, let’s make the creative case.

***

We share the same issue in film.  The Writer’s Guild Film Committee (and no doubt the Theatre Committee) would be keen to take this on and get involved.

***

We cannot look at the situation of women in theatre without looking at the whole spectrum of protected characteristics and the intersection of these.

***

60% of people attending theatre are women, so there is a commercial imperative to address this issue.

***

The panel were asked what they thought needed to happen next:

Christine:

Set up a network by sharing all our email addresses

Write up and share the notes of the meeting

Lobby Creative Scotland about collating and disseminating retrospective data

Raise the issues with people who run our arts companies

Blandine:

It is important to reclaim our female heritage.  In France they have coined the term ‘matrimoine’ [in French ‘patrimoine’ means ‘heritage’ and derives from the Latin ‘pater’ or father].  It is important that we research and rediscover great women who have preceded us.  Otherwise, women will always feel as though they are starting from scratch. There is a history or herstory of women’s heritage to be found.

Maxine:

Data is important.

ACE and Creative Scotland need to enforce data collection and proper action plans by funded organisations.


[1] I think (and so do others) that this is Liz Lochhead’s quote, but have not been able to confirm this.

[2] You could also add Fleur Darkin, Scottish Dance Theatre at Dundee Rep

 

Feminism is like housework. You need to re-visit it every 10 years.

On 8 May I participated in a round table discussion in Lyon on Gender equality – Europe in motion : women in the cultural sector organised by H/F (home/femme) Rhones-Alpes.   The event was part of a European Lab which ran alongside the music festival Nuits Sonores.  The aim was to share experience across Europe and identify actions to influence the new EU cultural programme. Below is the paper which formed the basis of my contribution to the discussions over two hours. For a summary of the discussions and their outcomes, see Europe de la culture : où sont les femmes ? ( in French).

 H/F Rhones-Aples is part of a network in France which promotes gender on equality in arts and culture.  The campaign has gained new energy from the election of Hollande and a left government and the leadership of the Minister of Culture, Aurelie Filippetti who has called on all organisations in France in receipt of public money to take account of gender in programming and employment and has pledged to collect and publish data. 

As indicated below, gender equality in arts and culture is a  campaign which has been going on for many decades in Scotland and across the UK.   It is time to re-start the campaign. 

Feminism is like housework.  You need to re-visit it every 10 years.[1]

« Le féminisme c’est comme le ménage : il faut y repenser tous les 10 ans. »

This quote – which comes from one of our foremost poets and playwrights  — is intended to be partly a joke but carries with it a serious message.  It is echoed in a piece published in Causette in 2010 « Le féminisme, c’est comme le ménage, si on ne s’y colle pas régulièrement, on finit par s’habituer à la crasse. » [2]

This is not empty rhetoric.  In preparation for this event, I have gone back through my personal archive and found material/research prepared over the past four decades- mainly, but not exclusively, in theatre and performing arts:

  • In the 1980s— I was involved in campaigns on women in the arts.  This work originated from the Labour Party and the publication of  a report on women in the arts and media, The Missing Culture.  I was working with the trades unions in Scotland at the time and organised a campaign and a conference on this in 1989. Our concern then was that the exclusion of women was not simply an issue of jobs but also affected the very roots of our culture.[3]
  • In the 1990s I was working at the government agency, the Scottish Arts Council.  We introduced a policy that all organisations that received public funding, monitored their activity and produced figures on equal opportunities.  In 1996 we analysed these figures in a major review which highlighted continuing inequalities facing women in positions of influence and power across the arts. This led to the development of policies in that area.[4]
  • In the first decade of the new millennium, I undertook a review of theatre directing in Scotland and identified the lack of women directors in our theatres.
  • More recently, I led on a review of theatre for Creative Scotland, the new government agency for culture in Scotland which replaced the Scottish Arts Council.  We uncovered the absence of monitoring of equal opportunities policies within the theatres which received public funding.   Nearly 50% of those surveyed did not bother to monitor. Creative Scotland itself took no steps to gather data nor monitor the application of these policies.  This means that there are no current data available on the number of plays by women which are produced, nor on job opportunities for women directors and designers in theatre in Scotland.  This takes us back before 1990s.

For today’s event, I could be reading a paper I prepared at the end of the 1990s and apart from updating the statistics slightly and making some of the references more contemporary, nothing has changed. The conclusions are just the same.

The most detailed recent research in Scotland comes from Stellar Quines, a feminist theatre company which commissioned research comparing the position of directors, writers, actors, designers and composers in theatre when they were founded in 1993 with the situation in 2009.

Key findings are:

  • The gender balance in a typical theatre season was more female in 2009 than 1993 but in no one category were women represented at a level of 50% or more.  Indeed in only one category (actors) was women’s representation above one third. Recent research in England characterised the problem as 2:1 issue: two men for every one women working in theatre in creative roles.
  • In general comparable data from UK, European and international sources showed an increase in women represented in theatre across a range of artistic roles.  However the trend in Scotland was slow in comparison and there was evidence that women got more opportunities in the less well funded companies.
  • Governance—the boards of theatres are mainly male and are, it appears, reluctant to appoint women.
  • There is a need for mentoring/support/networking systems for women—and sharing in the success of women.
  • Non- white and women with disabilities struggle with the complexity of their identity and appear to suffer from multiple discrimination. The identity issue is further complicated in Scotland by a debate around the desirability –or otherwise—of having Scots leading key cultural institutions- however we define that.

There are other arguments which echo down the decades:

  • The bigger the budget the less likely you are to see women in positions of creative leadership: not one of Scotland’s national cultural institutions is led by a women- including orchestra, opera, ballet, theatre, the national museums and galleries, the national library of Scotland and the Edinburgh International Festival.[5]
  • And then there is the Shakespeare problem — a particular issue in England. In France perhaps it is the Molière problem- the issue of the ‘canon’- (le canon litteraire).   Shakespeare dominates theatre in England. An interesting fact – he created 981 characters of which 826 are male and only 155 female. This does imply fewer opportunities for women performers.  However it goes beyond that into the heart of programming. Neither Nick Hytner (outgoing director of the National Theatre in London) nor Gregory Doran (recently appointed director of RSC and previously associate director) has ever directed a play by a woman. Ever.  Both have worked extensively with classical or historical texts where women just don’t feature.
  • In Scotland we have a different issue.  Interestingly there is much less in the way of the established ‘canon’ of work and indeed in an analysis of repertoire over the decades we showed that new work is central to theatrical output in Scotland.  So if women playwrights are not getting their work produced then it is because they are being offered fewer opportunities. But, as I said already, there is a lack of data.
  • And let’s not forget—women make up the majority of audiences in performing arts.

What has to be done?

  • Information is power: I was shocked to discover lack of data in Scotland.  If an arts organisation is in receipt of public money, it must have a policy and this must be monitored.  Let’s also recognise the crucial importance of European wide research such as the work done by the FIA – Federation of Actors on Age, Gender and Performer Employment in Europe. This research in 2007/8 showed that there are fundamental issues facing women in the performing arts—shorter careers, less money and age and gender stereotypes when it comes to roles.
  • Raising the issue: When there is an injustice, often we look to our lawmakers to pass legislation to make it illegal. It is illegal of course to discriminate in terms of employment and access to services But it is hard to legislate in the cultural world where we rely less on employment contracts and more on artistic collaborations.  Your Minister of Culture is to be congratulated in taking the lead on tackling this in France with her announcement of  ‘une Saison de l’égalité’ which specifically challenges French performing arts organisations to tackle programming and access to production for women.  In the UK all public bodies now have to report on the impact of their policies on equal opportunities.  Creative Scotland has produced such a report although it contains little on gender. [4]  There is a commitment to start gathering data from now, which means we will have to wait a few years to build a picture.  All we can do is keep analysing the data and raising the issue. ‘Why have you not commissioned any female playwrights, composers, choreographers? Why are you excluding the talent of over 50% of the population?’ And in this, as I said above, we need to government data to be gathered and made available.
  • Using the tools: The difference today from 30 years go is that we have new campaign tools in Twitter and Facebook – these are also the tools we can use for networking and mentoring. We need to use these networks to highlight these issues.   (An example of this is the Twitter feed @wits_scot which a few of us set up for International Women’s Day).  And let’s not forget international solidarity and events such as this.  We are now able to work across borders much more easily and pan- European campaigning is now a reality.
  • Women taking the lead:  I am impressed by initiatives such as Agent 160 a writer-led theatre company that produces work from its female playwrights, based across the UK.  Prompted by the fact that 17 per cent of produced work in the UK is written by women, Agent 160 addresses the production and commissioning gender imbalance in practical ways by producing plays and blogging on issues.  Women need to take initiatives and perhaps stop being too accommodating.  Here’s an example. My grandmother worked as a shorthand typist in the early 20th century- she learnt shorthand (a form of coding), typing (high level keyboard skills) and filing (data management and retrieval).  That job was a woman’s job so why is it when the digital revolution happened it all came down to boys with toys?  Why, sisters, did we allow men to take over the keyboard, coding and database management? And why, therefore is it men who dominate in the new digital creative businesses?
  • And this brings me to my last point: re- visiting feminism.  I care about hearing diverse voices in the arts and culture, including those from minority ethnic communities and those who have a disability, or those, like me, who are gay.  And I support building common cause where there is a common goal.   It seems, however that somewhere along the line we stopped talking about feminism and re-framed the debate around ‘diversity’, ‘access’ and ‘equal opportunities’ in employment.   Women have become bracketed with ‘minorities’ which we are not; and been subject to initiatives which are concerned with ‘creating dialogue and understanding amongst diverse communities’.  Or ‘providing greater access to opportunities’.  The issue about women in the arts is not just about jobs or access to services it is about who we are and how we see ourselves.  Let’s not have the same debate in another ten years.

[1] I think (and so do others) that this is Liz Lochhead’s quote, but have not been able to confirm this.

[2] Translation- ‘Feminism is like housework: if you don’t get down to it regularly, you end up getting used to the dirt.’

[3] The Missing Culture: Labour’s Plans for Women in the Arts and the Media  (1988?) London:Labour Party.

[4] Equal Opportunities in the Arts, Sarah Coleman (1996) Edinburgh: The Scottish Arts Council.

[5] Christopher Hampson is Artistic Director of  Scottish Ballet, Scotland’s national dance company and leads he artistic team.  However the company’s Chief Executive and Executive Producer is a woman, Cindy Sughrue.

[6] http://www.creativescotland.co.uk/about/our-policies#equality- see link on page to Equality Outcomes.